Manaquiri is a small sleepy town in the Brazilian State of Amazonas. It is not on the highway, but the state capital Manaus is a short trip three hours downstream where the Parana de Manaquiri River eventually flows into the mighty Amazon. The river that shares the name of the town is the area’s lifeblood. 800 of the town’s 20,000 population are fishers. And 14,000 people rely on the river as an economic lifeline. All are suffering as the river loses its grip on life.
Manaquiri is the centre of a drought lasting a month. It has not rained in 25 days which does not sound like much but it rarely happened before recent times in this lush rainforest region. It is long enough to have a devastating effect on the local river. Every tributary supplying water to the Manaquiri has choked up depriving the water of oxygen. As a result, the drought is killing tonnes of fish. Their rotting bodies are leaving thousands of people with no clean water.
Al Jazeera quoted a local scientist who says the problem is directly attributable to climate change. Philip Fearnside is a research professor in the Department of Ecology at the National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA) in Manaus. Fearnside has lived in the Amazon for 33 years and he says the drying up of the Manaquiri may signal similar droughts occurring with higher frequency as the climate continues to change. “[Climate change] is something we have experience with and know from the data, it’s not something that depends on the outcome of a computer simulation,” he said.
A photo essay at petroleum.berkeley.edu shows the extent of the devastation in Manaquiri. Boats are stranded in dry lakes and lagoons have evaporated. The parched conditions have triggered forest fires killing off fish and crops. As the waters receded, many people were trapped in their home without access to food or medical treatment.
The drought is happening just four years after Manaquiri suffered “its worst drought in 40 years”. The 2005 drought lasted for over two months and officials had to close 40 schools and cancel the school year because of a lack of food, transport and potable water. Cases of diarrhoea rose in the region as wells became poisoned and stagnant water caused a rise in malaria. One local, 39-year-old Manuel Tavares Silva was quoted at the time saying “I’ve never seen anything like this.”
Now it’s happening again. The New York Times said in mid-October the governor of Amazonas State, Eduardo Braga, decreed a “state of public calamity” which remains in effect two months later. Many boats cannot reach Manaus as the river level in Amazonian tributaries drop to near zero. The drought also affects neighbouring states and other Amazonian countries Peru, Bolivia and Colombia.
Many scientists say the drought is most likely a result of the same rise in water temperatures in the tropical Atlantic Ocean that caused Hurricane Katrina. If global warming is involved as they suspect, it is likely to mean more severe and frequent droughts in the region. Greenpeace is less circumspect and says the problems in Manaquiri and in the Amazon region are a direct result of deforestation and global warming. “If you compare the rainfall averages over the last five years, you see that there have been growing rain deficits each year,” said Manaus-based Greenpeace activist Carlos Rittl about the 2005 drought. “It will be extremely worrying if this becomes a tendency.” Whether those meeting in Copenhagen like it or not, that tendency has now arrived.