Viktor Yushchenko’s crushing defeat was not unexpected after period of legislative deadlock, lagging reforms and economic doldrums. But it represents an end to the Orange Revolution which began in the last presidential election in 2004 when he was poisoned with dioxin. Yanukovich and Tymoshenko have signaled a return to pro-Russian politics. Both run-off candidates have said they will abandon efforts to join NATO.
Russia remains the truculent big brother. They curbed natural gas deliveries to Ukraine three times in the last five years, withheld a new ambassador to Kiev and accused Yushchenko of supplying arms to Georgia during its war with Russia in August 2008. Fyodor Lukyanov, editor of Russia in Global Affairs magazine, called the first round result a “win-win situation” for his country. “Whoever becomes the next president will be much less ideological and more businesslike,” he claimed.
Yulia Tymoshenko does not seem like a natural Russian ally as a close confederate of Yushchenko during the Orange Revolution. Like Yushchenko her power base is in the west of the country. Her election priorities were a fairer society and more government efficiency, and she also pledged innovation-driven economic reform and better welfare provisions. But she forged a close relationship with Vladimir Putin who personally negotiated an end to last year’s gas cut with her.
Believing herself to be the reincarnation of Eva Peron, Tymoshenko said her biggest success during her two year tenure as Prime Minister was leading Ukraine out of financial crisis. She said last week the country has come out “stronger, not shattered, not in pieces, not devoid of blood, or lost,” She said her government had renewed the aviation industry, built a new hydroelectric station, and led the way with agriculture production. “[We] managed to reach leading positions in the agrarian sector in the world…[and] did not let the agrarian sector to drop its production even half a percent,” she said. “We are building what is needed for the Euro 2012. We modernized factories. Yes, it was difficult, but during a crisis, things are difficult.”
Despite Tymoshenko’s rhetoric, Viktor Yanukovich remains the favourite to become the next president. He is a two time prime minister, initially from 2002-2004. This was the springboard to the presidential campaign of 2004 backed by Russia and early results gave him a victory. His win was thrown out by the courts after street protests and he was condemned for fraud and abuse of power. Yanukovich bounced back two years later to regain the Prime Ministership and is now is benefiting from disappointment with Yushchenko’s failure to stop bickering with his supposed allies including Tymoshenko.
Yanukovich draws his support from the Russian-speaking areas of the industrial east and the south. He has promised an economic revival, new jobs, pay raises, judicial reforms and tax-free policies for small enterprises for five years. Yanukovich is a Russian speaker with only halting ability in Ukrainian. But he is no longer the Russian lapdog he was five years ago. Since 2004 Ukraine has effectively created a distinct new national consciousness by banning Russian on national television and in university entrance exams.
The runoff election will be tight and the role of third placed Sergei Tigipko will be vital. As well as being an economic minister, Tigipko was a central banker and a former adviser to both Yanukovych and Tymoshenko. Though officially staying neutral, he has expressed interest in working as prime minister under either. He will probably be able to name his price to guarantee either candidate victory.