Matters worsened in 2010 after former colonial power Britain slashed $4.5m from its annual $33m aid budget when Malawi bought a $13.26 million presidential jet. Britain said aid criteria were based on three principles of government: commitment to poverty reduction, sound public financial management and human rights. Malawi relies on aid for 40 percent of its budget and the country is desperately undeveloped. Only one in 20 of Malawi’s population has access to electricity while the rest depend on charcoal for cooking and paraffin for lighting.
When Mutharika died, information minister Patricia Kaliati said Banda could not take over as head of state because she was in opposition. Strong calls from the US, EU and Britain and stopped a resistance movement to her ascension from gaining traction. One of Banda’s first actions was to sack Kaliati.
The 61-year-old Banda is no relation to Malawi’s founding president Hastings Banda who achieved independence for Nyasaland from Britain in 1963. The earlier Banda chose the name Malawi based on a corruption of Lake Maravi. Following a typical African post-colonial trajectory, Banda turned Malawi into a one party state and he became immensely wealthy. A pro-Western proxy, his power and support faded after the Cold War and by 1993 the internal pressure for democratic change was intense.
In the 1994 elections Banda was defeated by Elson Bakili Muluzi. Muluzi proved as corrupt as his predecessor and siphoned off millions from the sale of Malawi’s food reserves. Despite this Muluzi was re-elected in 1999 and tried to change the constitution to run a third time in 2004. He was frustrated by parliament, the courts and demonstrations in the street and was forced to stand aside, anointing Mutharika to replace him. Within 12 months Muluzi was apologising for his choice of successor and aimed to run in 2009.
But an anti-corruption investigation in 2008 crippled his campaign and the country’s Electoral Commission and the courts combined to stop him from running again. Mutharika was at the height of his powers having overseen an increase in agricultural production. But the subsidies Mutharika paid to lift harvests could not be sustained after Britain cut its aid budget.
Joyce Banda was one of Mutharika’s earliest ministerial appointments. A single mother and refugee from a violent marriage, she ran several successful businesses before entering parliament in 2004. She proved her mettle rising to become Foreign Affairs minister after just two years in office. She was made deputy for the 2009 election but felt betrayed after Mutharika endorsed his brother as successor.
Peter Mutharika now becomes crucial as Banda attempts to establish her presidential credentials. Mutharika is relatively new to Malawi politics having lived in the US for decades as a law teacher. He congratulated Banda on her appointment but is likely to be her biggest issue as he becomes DPP leader.
Mutharika’s brother’s death was not greatly mourned. As Al Jazeera said, many of Malawi’s 13 million people saw him as an autocrat responsible for an economic crisis. Fixing Malawi’s flailing economy presents a great challenge to Banda. There is plenty of time between now and 2014 for her to become unpopular allowing Mutharika an easy run at bringing the leadership back into the family.