Iran’s nuclear deal has big ramifications for the county’s other major source of energy: oil. Iran has the fourth largest proven reserves of oil in the world but production has halved since 2011 when US and European sanctions began. Iran faces many challenges to double output back to two million barrels a day, not least with ageing infrastructure, but has a long oil history and was the first country in the Middle East to drill for oil in 1901. Iran also has a long history of western interference and if suspicious Americans look back in anger to the hostage drama of 1979, Iranians look back further to 1953 when America and Britain sabotaged their young democracy.
Iran was of massive interest to the Allied Powers in the Second World War and the site of one of the war’s most famous meetings. In December 1943 Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill met on a sunny Tehran morning to discuss how to divide the post-Nazi world. They pledged to work together “in war and the peace that will follow”. After the photographers searched their faces for smiles on the veranda, the three great men retired to a hall for a private conversation. Before they discussed weighty matters of empire, Roosevelt asked Churchill what became of Iran’s former Shah Reza, adding, “if I’m pronouncing it correctly”. Churchill told Roosevelt he became a Nazi and denied Britain and Russia the use of oil and a supplies railway. They invaded Iran in 1941 and Shah Reza was forced to abdicate to his son Mohamed Reza Pahlavi. The father moved to a comfortable life in Johannesburg where he died soon after the Tehran conference. Roosevelt’s question showed up US ignorance of Iranian affairs.
The choice of Tehran for the meeting was no accident. Iran had been zone of influence for Britain and Russia since a 1907 treaty shared the country’s spoils between them. The terms of the 1907 and 1941 conquests allowed Iranians to rule as long as they did not act against their powerful guests. An officially neutral Iran was of vital strategic importance to both. Roosevelt was happy to let the two fight it out over Iranian oil while the US maintained control of the bigger fields in Saudi Arabia.
The turmoil of the 1917 Russian revolution left Iran almost entirely a British colony. AIOC, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (nationalised by Churchill then corporatised as BP) was Britain’s main supplier of oil. Another Churchill decision, to convert the British Navy from coal to oil in 1913, saw AIOC become one of the world’s leading producers supplying Britain in two world wars. In 1947 it reported a profit of £40 million and gave the young Shah’s country just seven million. It reneged on a 1933 deal with his hard-nosed father to provide the workers with better pay, more schools, roads, telephones and job advancement. The young Shah was a playboy and had little interests in his people’s problems but as long as he kept control of the military, Britain didn’t care how badly his country fared.
Mohammad Mossadegh was less sanguine. He knew Iranians chafed bitterly about their abject poverty. Born in 1882, Mossadegh was a parliamentarian for over three decades, implacably opposed to foreign influence. In a wave of fervour, he was elected Prime Minister in 1951 with a mandate to throw AIOC out of Iran, reclaim the oil reserves and end British influence. Mossadegh was in his seventies and like Proust, did much of his business in bed. When he nationalised Anglo-Iranian, he became a national hero. Shortly after, Iran took control of the refinery.
The British were outraged. Labour prime minister Clement Attlee was conducting mass nationalisation of British assets but would not grant Iran the same licence. His government declared Mossadegh a thief and demanded the UN and World Court punish him. When neither supported Britain, they imposed an embargo that devastated the Iranian economy. Mossadegh was unmoved and said he “would rather be fried in Persian oil than make the slightest concession”. Mossadegh became a third world hero and delighted admirers when he ridiculed Britain at the World Court saying it was trying “to persuade world opinion that the lamb had devoured the wolf”.
Time Magazine made him their man of the year in 1951 saying he “put Scheherazade in the petroleum business and oiled the wheels of chaos”. They called him a “strange old wizard” in a region where, importantly, the US had no policy. Attlee warned President Truman not to interfere with the dealings of “an ally.” The US complied but would not support a British military invasion of Iran.
Events changed dramatically when Britain and the US both turned right in elections. In late 1951 the old warhorse Winston Churchill denounced Attlee in several speeches for failing to confront Mossadegh. Churchill said Attlee had betrayed “solemn undertakings” not to abandon Abadan. He saw the loss of Iranian oil as the loss of empire and considered Mossadegh “an elderly lunatic bent on wrecking his country and handing it over to the Communists.” Britain’s position toughened when Churchill won the election.
Truman was also up for re-election in 1952 but decided not to contest. As in Britain, a Second World War hero won and Dwight Eisenhower became the new Republican president. The Cold War was Eisenhower’s biggest focus and Iran was one of his first challenges. Britain played up to the new Washington regime claiming Iran was in crisis under Mossadegh and could easily fall to the Communist Party backed by Moscow.
Eisenhower’s team prepared to organise a coup in Iran. His former wartime chief-of-staff and now undersecretary of state General Walter Bedell Smith linked the campaign with the State Department and the CIA. At the head of these organisations were remarkable brothers. John Foster Dulles was a world-class international lawyer now Secretary of State while Allen Dulles ran the intelligence organisation. The brothers had a special interest in Iran and Allen went to Tehran in 1949 where he met the Shah and Mossadegh. The Dulles brothers were ideological warriors determined to prevent Communism in Iran.
Eisenhower gave implicit approval for Operation Ajax but presented a front of plausible deniability. Behind the scenes the two Dulles and Smith had authority to proceed. They appointed secret agent Kermit (Kim) Roosevelt, grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, to bring the coup together. Independently wealthy, Kim was a history professor at Harvard until he joined the newly established Office of Strategic Services in the war. His work in the OSS remains shrouded in mystery but he stayed on in peacetime when it was rebadged as the CIA.
Working from the US embassy in Tehran (which angry Iranians remembered in 1979) Roosevelt liaised with British counterparts in the Secret Intelligence Service – MI6. Iranian tribal leaders on the British payroll launched a short-lived uprising. Roosevelt met with anti-Mossadegh politicians and persuaded the Shah to sign a “firman” (a document of doubtful legality sacking the Prime Minister). By mid-August 1953 Roosevelt and his local agents were ready. He paid newspapers and religious leaders to scream for Mossadegh’s head and organised protests and riots turning the streets into battlegrounds.
At the last minute Operation Ajax failed. On August 15 an officer arrived at Mossadegh’s house to present the firman only to find he was tipped off in advance. The Shah fled the country while units loyal to Mossadegh surged through Tehran. But Roosevelt did not quit and three days later organised a second attempt. Again he launched a massive mob in the capital. Crucially Mossadegh did not call out the police to stop them. Armed units loyal to the Shah launched a gun-battle against Mossadegh’s supporters. The following morning Tehran Radio announced “the Government of Mossadegh has been defeated!”
Mossadegh was arrested and the Shah flew home from Italy in stunned triumph. The New York Times wrote “the sudden reversal was nothing more than a mutiny by the lower ranks against pro-Mossadegh officers”. Roosevelt was delighted. A day earlier he had been ordered home, now he was returning in triumph. Mossadegh was given a three year prison sentence. He served it until 1956 and was confined to home in Ahmad Abad until his death, aged 85, in 1967.
The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company tried to return to their old monopoly position after his overthrow. But the US invested too much in the coup to let that happen. They organised an international consortium to assume control of the oil. AOIC held 40 percent, five American companies held 40 percent and the remainder was split between Royal Dutch Shell and Compagnie Francaise de Petroles. The consortium agreed to split profits fifty-fifty with the Shah but never allowed Iranians to examine the books.
Though Mossadegh was a forbidden topic in Iran, new enemies emerged. By the late 1970s the Shah crushed all legitimate political parties and a religious force filled the void. When he was forced to flee the country in 1979 as a reviled tyrant, the first government to replace him was determined to invoke Mossadegh’s legacy. New Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan had been dispatched by Mossadegh to Abadan after the British fled in 1951. Another Mossadegh admirer Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was elected president. But behind the scenes Ayatollah Khomeini was consolidating power. Before long he arrested all his enemies. Mossadegh was defeated again in death.
The 1953 coup had profound impact on America. The CIA became a central part of foreign policy apparatus. While Roosevelt went home in quiet retirement, the Dulles brothers used the template to overthrow rulers such as Arbenz in Guatemala (1954) and Allende in Chile (1973). The incident also changed how Iranians viewed the US. Before 1953, Britain was the rapacious and greedy enemy. Now the US was the sinister party, manipulating in the background. The 1979 embassy hostage was a direct result of Carter’s decision to allow the Shah into America. But the crisis lasted 14 months because of the earlier distrust.
This week’s nuclear deal between the countries won’t immediately heal half a century of hurt. But it is crucial it is ratified despite hardliners in both countries. The bleatings of Israel should be ignored – with its own nuclear arsenal Israel can look after itself no matter what happens in Iran. Mohammad Mossadegh offered a template of what Iran might have been, had the west not been blinkered by its own suspicions. Now is the time to make good on his legacy and bring Iran in from the cold.